When sulfide is oxidized through contact with air via mining, it forms sulfuric acid and when this is combined with trace elements, it has a negative impact on groundwater. This happens both surface and underground mines.
Chemical deposits that are left over from explosives are usually toxic and it increase the salinity of mine water as well as contaminating it. Through the “in situ” mining groundwater can be directly contaminated, in which a solvent seeps into un-mined rock, leaching minerals.
Toxins like cyanide and mercury are used in the extraction of minerals that can permanently pollute the water, making it difficult to the fishermen to find fish.
Spills into the lakes and ocean also add toxic to heavy metals and sulfuric acid to the environment, where it can take years.
Land impacts are immense in mining which involves moving large quantities of rock and in surface mining. Almost all of the mined ore of non-ferrous metals become waste.
Mining activities might as well lead to erosion which is very dangerous for the land.
This also leads to destruction of river banks and changes how the river flows, where it flows, what lives in it, etc.
Toxins such as cyanide and by products like mercury which is used in the extraction of minerals can permanently pollute the land and people will no longer be able to farm in certain places.
Open-pit mining also leaves behind large craters that can be seen from outer-space.
Due to people digging in search of precious minerals, a lot of areas are pock marked by thousands of small holes.
Deep sea mines are at risk in eliminating rare and potentially valuable organisms.
Mining also destroys animal habitats and ecosystem.
Those activity that surrounds the mine which includes explosions, transportation of goods, road construction, the movement of people, the sound made, etc are actually harmful to the ecosystem and will change the way animals have to live since they will have a new way to cope with the mine and live around it.
In general, spills of deadly substances have a very negative effect on animals and ecosystem.
Discharged toxins and tailing from the mines can disrupt and disturb the way animals live.
By adding or taking out something from the animals’ everyday lives, mining can completely destroy the ecosystem.